What is a Data Network? – Definition, Goals, Structure, and More
Data Network Definition
The ‘data networks’ are designed and built on architectures intended to serve their purposes of use.
Firstly, data networks are generally based on packet switching and classify according to their size, the distance they cover, and physical architecture.
secondly, data networks are those infrastructures or communication networks that have been explicitly designing to transmit information through the exchange of data;
And also, It is a structure that has a characteristic pattern. It can refer to the interconnection of computers and other devices that share resources.
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Goals of Data Network
Share resources, equipment, information, and programs that are locally or geographically dispersed.
Provide reliability to the information, having storage alternatives.
Obtain a good cost/benefit ratio.
Transmit information between distant users as quickly and efficiently as possible.
The basic structure of Data Network
Sometimes in a telecommunications closet or cabinet where Hubs and Pach Panels place in an orderly manner.
The servers in which the information available to the user is found and processed are the system administrators.
The Hubs, which act as signal amplifiers and to which the nodes are connected.
This link or backbone of the system recommends to made in Fiber Optic or UTP cable.
The “Pach Panel’s,” which are cable organizers.
The “Pach Cord,” which is a cable of the UTP type only with greater flexibility than the current UTP, which interconnects the “Pach Panel” with the “Hub,” as well as the wall plates or sockets with each of the terminals (PC’s).
Finally, Horizontal Cabling knew which UTP cable is usually used and links the pach panel with each of the wall plates.
When designing a data network’s structured cabling, a wide range of aspects must consider both technical and economic perspectives, depending on the system requirements.
Different types of cables and categories
- It is a cable use to transport high-frequency electrical signals with two concentric conductors, a central one, called life, in charge of carrying the information.
- An external one, with a tubular appearance, is called a mesh or shield, which serves as a ground and returns a reference of the currents.
- Coaxial cable consists of a copper core, a layer of plastic insulation, and surrounded by a metal mesh that serves as an insulator to reduce interference that may come from outside.
- And also, When used for long distances, signal attenuation reduces by increasing the thickness of the copper core.
Twisted pair cable
- TPC consists of two insulated copper wires, which twists helically, just like a DNA molecule. In this way, the twisted pair constitutes a circuit that can transmit data.
- Two parallel wires make up a simple antenna. however, When these wires twist, the waves of different turns cancel out, making the radiation from the wireless effective.
- Twisted pair (STP) or shielded twisted pair: copper cables insulate within a protective jacket, with a specific number of braids per foot.
- STP refers to the sum of insulation around a bundle of cables and thus its noise immunity.
- Its use in computer networks such as Ethernet or Token Ring. It is more expensive than the unshielded version, and its impedance is 150 Ohms.
- In this version, each twisted pair cover by a protective cover that isolates it from noise.
- And also, It is valid to cover longer distances and Ethernet and Token ring-type networks, basically for external networks communicating different networks such as company headquarters, Internet companies, etc.
- Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable is a type of twisted pair cable uses mainly for telecommunications.
- They widely use to make telecommunications connections today both indoors;
- For example, the Ethernet cables connect from the modem to the computer and outside; for example, the extensive telephone wiring on the poles.
- Also, it is the most common for local networks and the one that you will see in most companies and homes.
- This cable is an intermediate version between UTP and STP. Unlike STP, in which each pair shields, it has global security.
- And also, It is more reliable than UTP, but it is also a bit more expensive.
- Fiber optics is a transmission medium commonly use in data networks, an excellent thread of transparent material, glass, or plastic materials.
- Pulses of light sent that represent the data to be transmit.
- The light beam confines wholly and propagates through the fiber’s interior with an angle of reflection above the limit angle of total reflection, based on Snell’s law.
Classification of Data Network
A personal area network (PAN):
- It is a network that interconnects computers located near a person.
- And also, In contrast, a LAN data exchange in a small area (such as an office or a building).
Local Area Network (LAN):
- Local area networks are usually a limited network connecting computers within an office, campus, or single building; most are privately own.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):
- The Metropolitan area networks design for connecting equipment throughout an entire city.
- It can be a single network that interconnects several LAN’s local area networks resulting in a more extensive network.
- For this reason, a MAN owns exclusively by the same private company, or it can be a public service network connecting public and private networks.
Wide Area Network (WAN):
- Wide area networks provide transmission over large geographic areas.
- A WAN network generally uses public service networks and private networks, and they can extend around the globe.
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